Monday, 18 March 2019

ମହିଳା ସୁରକ୍ଷା...... ଅନେକ ପ୍ରଶ୍ନବାଚୀ.......


ସମାନ ଚିନ୍ତାଧାରା, ସ୍ମାର୍ଟ ବନାଅ, କିଛି ନୂଆ ପାଇଁ ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତନ ଆଣ ଆମ ସମ୍ବିଧାନରେ ମହିଳାମାନଙ୍କୁ ସବୁ କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ ଦିଆଯାଇଛି ସମାନତା ଏବଂ ସେମାନଙ୍କ ବିରୁଦ୍ଧ ରେ ହେଉଥିବା ହିଂସା କୁ ରୋକିବା ପାଇଁ ମଧ୍ୟ ଦିଆଯାଇଛି ସୁତନ୍ତ୍ର ଅଧିକାର।  ମାତ୍ର ବାସ୍ତବ ଚିତ୍ର ଏହାଠାରୁ ବହୁତ ଦୂରରେ। ଭାରତରେ ୬୫.୫% ମହିଳା ସ୍ଵାକ୍ଷର ଥିଲାବେଳେ, ଓଡିଶାରେ ୬୪.୦୧% ମହିଳା ସ୍ଵାକ୍ଷର । ଲିଙ୍ଗ ଅନୁପାତ ଭାରତରେ ୯୪୩ (୧୦୦୦ ପୁରୁଷ ପାଇଁ) ଥିଲାବେଳେ ଓଡିଶାରେ ୯୭୯। ଶିଶୁ ମାନଙ୍କ ଲିଙ୍ଗ ଅନୁପାତ ଭାରତରେ ୯୧୯ ଥିଲାବେଳେ, ଓଡିଶାରେ ୯୪୧। ଏବେବି ମହିଳା ମାନେ ସମାଜରେ ପୁରୁଷ ମାନଙ୍କ ତୁଳନାରେ ବହୁ ପଛରେ ଅଛନ୍ତି। ମା ପେଟରୁ ହିଁ ଆରମ୍ଭ ହେଇଯାଉଛି ସେମାନଙ୍କର ଯନ୍ତ୍ରଣା । ଭାରତୀୟ ଜନସଂଖ୍ୟା ରୁ ଳିଙ୍ଗ ନିରୂପଣ ଜନିତ ଭୃଣହତ୍ୟା ଏବଂ ଝିଅମାନଙ୍କର ଅବହେଳା ଜନିତ ଅପମୃତ୍ୟୁ ଯୋଗୁଁ ୬୩ ମିଲିୟନ ମହିଳା କମ୍ ଅଛନ୍ତି । 
ସମୟ ବଦଳିଯାଇଛି ଏହା ସହିତ ସମାଜରେ ଆସିଛି ଅନେକ ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତନ ମାତ୍ର ମହିଳା ମାନଙ୍କର ସ୍ଥିତିରେ ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତନ ବିଶେଷ ଦେଖାଯାଇ ନାହିଁ    ଓଡିଶାରେ ୫୧.୦% ଓ ଭାରତରେ ୫୪.୩% ମହିଳା ରକ୍ତହୀନତା ଜନିତ ଅପପୃଷ୍ଟିର ଶିକାର।  ଭାରତରେ ୨୬.୮% ଓ ଓଡିଶାରେ ୨୧.୩% ଝିଅମାନଙ୍କର ବିବାହ ୧୮ ବର୍ଷ ପୂର୍ବରୁ ହିଁ କରିଦିଆଯାଉଛି (ଏନଏଚଏଫଏସ-୪) ମହିଳା ହିଂସା କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ ୮୨୫୨ କେସ ଓଡିଶାରେ ଓ ୩୩୮,୯୪୫ କେସ ଭାରତରେ ରିପୋର୍ଟ କରାଯାଇଅଛି (ଏନସିଆରବି-୨୦୧୬) । ୨୪.୮% ମହିଳା ଓଡିଶାରେ ତାଙ୍କ ସ୍ଵାମୀ ମାନଙ୍କଦ୍ଵାରା ହିଂସା ର ଶିକାର ହେଉଛନ୍ତି (ଏନଏଚଏଫଏସ-୪). ୨୦୧୮ ରେ ଓଡିଶାରେ ୯୯ ଟି ମହିଳାଙ୍କୁ ଡାହାଣୀ ସନ୍ଦେହକରି ସେମାନଙ୍କ ବିରୁଦ୍ଧରେ କରାଯାଇଥିବା ହିଂସା ଓଡିଶା କ୍ରାଇମ ବ୍ରାଞ୍ଚ ରେ ଲିପିବଦ୍ଧ ହୋଇଛି।  ଏଠି ସହିତ ଲିଙ୍ଗଗତ ଭେଦଭାବ, କର୍ମକ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ ନିର୍ଯାତନା, ରାସ୍ତା ଘାଟରେ ଅଶଳୀନ ମନ୍ତବ୍ୟ, ଘରୋଇହିଂସା, ଯୌତୁକ ପ୍ରଥା, ଡାହାଣୀ ପ୍ରଥା, ଯୌନହିଂସା, ବାଲ୍ୟ ବିବାହ, ବେତନରେ ଅସମାନତା, ଅସୁରକ୍ଷିତ ବାର୍ଦ୍ଧକ୍ୟ, ବୈଧବ୍ୟ ରେ ସାମାଜିକ ବାସନ୍ଦ ଇତ୍ୟାଦି ମହିଳା ମାନଙ୍କର ଜୀବନକୁ ଆଜିବି ପ୍ରଭାବିତ କରୁଛି।      
ମହିଳା ମାନଙ୍କ ବିରୁଦ୍ଧରେ ହେଉଥିବା ହିଂସା କୁ ରୋକିବା ପାଇଁ ଏବଂ ସେମାନଙ୍କ ଅଧିକାରର  ସୁରକ୍ଷା ନିମନ୍ତେ ଅନେକ ଆଇନ୍ ପ୍ରଣୟନ କରାଯାଇଅଛି ଯଥା ବାଲ୍ୟ ବିବାହ ନିରୋଧି ଆଇନ ୨୦୦୬ (The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006), ସ୍ଵତନ୍ତ୍ର ବିବାହ ଆଇନ ୧୯୫୪ (Special Marriage Act 1954), ଯୌତୁକ ନିରୋଧି ଆଇନ ୧୯୬୧ (Dowry Prohibition Act 1961), ଭାରତୀୟ ବିବାହ ବିଚ୍ଛେଦ ଆଇନ ୧୯୬୯ (Indian Divorce Act 1969), ପ୍ରସୂତୀ ସୁବିଧା ଆଇନ ୧୯୬୧ (Maternity Benefit Act 1961), ଚିକିତ୍ସା ଦ୍ଵାରା ଗର୍ଭପାତ ଆଇନ  ୧୯୭୧ (Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1971), ମହିଳା ମାନଙ୍କୁ କର୍ମସ୍ଥଳୀରେ ଯୌନ ଉତ୍ପୀଡନ (ରୋକିବା, ନିଷେଧ, ନିବାରଣ) ଆଇନ ୨୦୧୩ (Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013), ମହିଳା ମାନଙ୍କୁ ଖରାପ ଭାବରେ ଚିତ୍ରଣ କରିବା (ନିବାରଣ ) ଆଇନ ୧୯୮୬ (Indecent Representation of Women(Prevention) Act,1986,  ମହିଳା କମିଶନ ଆଇନ ୧୯୯୦ (National Commission for Women Act, 1990), ସମାନ ପାରିଶ୍ରମିକ ଆଇନ ୧୯୭୬ (Equal Remuneration Act, 1976), ଘରୋଇ ହିଂସା ନିରୋଧ ଆଇନ ୨୦୦୫ (Protection of Women from Domestic Violence  ଇତ୍ୟାଦି  ପ୍ରମୁଖ
ମହିଳା ମାନଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ଅନେକ ସରକାରୀ ଯୋଜନା, ନିୟମ ଓ କାନୁନ ଥିବା ସତ୍ଵେ ଏହା ସେମାନଙ୍କର ପାଖରେ ପହଞ୍ଚି ପାରୁନାହିଁ । କୋଉଠି ନା କୋଉଠି ଏଥିରେ କମି ରହିଯାଉଛି । ସେଥିପାଇଁ ଆଜିର ସମାଜରେ ମହିଳା ମାନଙ୍କର ସ୍ଥିତି ଅତ୍ୟନ୍ତ ଚିନ୍ତାଜନକ। ପ୍ରତିଦିନ ଖବର କାଗଜର ପୃଷ୍ଠା ଲେଉଟାଇଲେ ଏହାର ଅନେକ ଦୃଷ୍ଟାନ୍ତ ଦେଖିବାକୁ ମିଳେ। ମହିଳା ମାନେ ଘରେ ବାହାରେ ସବୁଠାରେ ଅବହେଳିତ, ଅସୁରକ୍ଷିତ ଓ ନିର୍ଯାତିତ ଓ ସମାଜରେ ମହିଳା ମାନଙ୍କ ବିରୁଦ୍ଧରେ ହିଂସା ବଢି ବଢି ଚାଲିଛି। ମହିଳା ମାନଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ଏତେ ସବୁ ସୁବିଧା ଥାଇଁ ଆଜିବି ସ୍ଥିତି ଏତେ ଗମ୍ଭୀର କାହିଁକି ? କାହିଁକି ମହିଳାଟିଏ ଦିନରେ ବି ଏକୁଟିଆ ଚାଲିବାକୁ ଭୟ କରୁଛି ? କାହିଁ ତାର ସେ ସ୍ଵାଧିନତା ? କେଉଁଠି କେଉଁଠି ଲାଗେ ଏ ଆଇନ ର ଫାଙ୍କରେ ସମସ୍ତେ ଖସି ଯାଉନାହାନ୍ତିତ ? ହୁଏତ ଆନ୍ତରିକତାର ଅଭାବ ଓ ଚିରାଚରିତ ପୁରୁଣା ଭାବନାର ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତନ ହେବାରେ ବାଧା ରହିଛି । ଏହିସବୁକୁ ଦେଖିଲେ ଓ ସ୍ଥିତି କୁ ଅନୁଧ୍ୟାନ କଲେ ମନରେ ସ୍ଵତଃ ପ୍ରଶ୍ନ ଉଠେ ଆମ ସମାଜରେ ରେ ମହିଳା ମାନେ କଣ ସତରେ ସୁରକ୍ଷିତ ?    
ଅନୁରାଧା ମହାନ୍ତି
କାର୍ଯ୍ୟନିର୍ବାହୀ ନିର୍ଦ୍ଦେଶିକା, ପିକକ୍ 

ବିଶ୍ଵ ଜଳ ଦିବସ - ଆମ ପାଇଁ ଆହ୍ଵାନ


ବିଶ୍ଵରେ ୨.୧ ବିଲିୟନ ଲୋକଙ୍କ ଘରେ ବିଶୁଦ୍ଧ ପାନୀୟ ଜଳର ସୁବିଧା ନାହଁ । ପ୍ରତି ୪ ଟିରୁ ଗୋଟିଏ ପ୍ରାଥମିକ ବିଦ୍ୟାଳୟରେ ପାନୀୟଜଳ ର କୌଣସି ସୁବିଧା ନଥିବାରୁ ପିଲାମାନେ ଅସୁରକ୍ଷିତ ଉତ୍ସରୁ ପାଣି ପିଉଛନ୍ତି ନଚେତ୍ ଶୋଷରେ ରହୁଛନ୍ତି । ବିଶୁଦ୍ଧ ପାନୀୟ ଜଳର ଅଭାବ ଓ ଅସ୍ଵସ୍ଥିକର ପରିବେଶ ଯୋଗୁଁ  ପ୍ରତିଦିନ ପାଞ୍ଚବର୍ଷ ବୟସ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ୭୦୦ ପିଲା ମୃତ୍ୟୁ ମୁଖରେ ପଡ଼ୁଛନ୍ତି । ସାରା ବିଶ୍ଵରେ ଅସୁରକ୍ଷିତ ଉତ୍ସରୁ ଜଳ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରୁଥିବା ୮୦ ପ୍ରତିଶତ ଲୋକ ଗ୍ରାମରେ ବସବାସ କରନ୍ତି । ପାନୀୟ ଜଳର ସୁବିଧା ନଥିବା ପ୍ରାୟ ଦଶ ରୁ ଆଠ ଘରେ ମହିଳା ଓ ଝିଅ ମାନେ ପାଣି ବୋହି ଆଣିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ କରିଥାନ୍ତି । ପାନୀୟ ଜଳର ଅଭାବ ଯୋଗୁଁ ୬୮.୫ ମିଲିୟନ ଲୋକ ନିଜ ଜାଗା ବା ଘର ଛାଡିବା ପାଇଁ ବାଧ୍ୟ ହୋଇଥାନ୍ତି । ପାଖାପାଖି ୧୫୯ ମିଲିୟନ ଲୋକ ଭୁପୃଷ୍ଠ ରେ ଥିବା ଜଳର ଉତ୍ସ ଯଥା ପୋଖରୀ, ନଦୀ ବା ଝରଣା ଇତ୍ୟାଦିରୁ ପାନୀୟ ଜଳ ସଂଗ୍ରହ କରିଥାନ୍ତି ।  ପାଖାପାଖି ୪ ବିଲିୟନ ଲୋକ – ସମଗ୍ର ବିଶ୍ଵର ଦୁଇ ତୃତୀୟାଂଶ ବର୍ଷରେ ଅତିକମ୍ ରେ ଏକମାସ ଜଳ ଅଭାବ ଜନିତ କଷ୍ଟ ଭୋଗ କରିଥାନ୍ତି ପ୍ରତିଦିନ ୮୦୦ ମହିଳା ଗର୍ଭଧାରଣରେ ଜଟିଳତା ଓ ଶିଶୁ ଜନ୍ମ ଜନିତ ସମସ୍ୟା ଯୋଗୁଁ ମୃତ୍ୟ ମୁଖରେ ପଡିଥାନ୍ତି ୨୦୩୦ ସୁଧା ୭୦୦ ମିଲିୟନ ଲୋକ ଉତ୍କଟ ଜଳାଭାବ ଜନିତ ସମସ୍ୟା ପାଇଁ ବାସଚ୍ୟୁତ ହୋଇପାରନ୍ତି । ଆଜିମଧ୍ୟ ଏକ ବିଲିୟନ ଲୋକ ବିଶୁଦ୍ଧ ପାନୀୟ ଜଳ ବିନା ବଞ୍ଚିଛନ୍ତି । ସେମାନଙ୍କ ଘର, ବିଦ୍ୟାଳୟ, କର୍ମସ୍ଥଳ, ଚାଷଜମି ଏବଂ କାରଖାନା ତିଷ୍ଠି ରହିବା ଓ ଉନ୍ନତି କରିବା ପାଇଁ ନିୟମିତ ସଂଘର୍ଷ କରୁଛି । ସ୍ଵଚ୍ଛ ଓ ବିଶୁଦ୍ଧଜଳ କୁ ବ୍ୟବହାର କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ କିଛି ନିର୍ଦ୍ଧିଷ୍ଟ ବର୍ଗ ବିଶେଷ କରି ମହିଳା, ଶିଶୁ, ଶରଣାର୍ଥୀ, ଆଦିବାସୀ, ଭିନ୍ନକ୍ଷମ ଇତ୍ୟାଦି ପ୍ରାୟ ଉପେକ୍ଷିତ ଏବଂ ସେମାନେ ବୈଷମ୍ୟ ବା ଭେଦଭାବର ର ସମ୍ମୁଖୀନ ହୋଇଥାନ୍ତି 
ଲୋକମାନେ ବିଭିନ୍ନ କାରଣ ପାଇଁ ବିଶୁଦ୍ଧ ପାନୀୟ ଜଳ ପାଇବାରୁ ବଞ୍ଚିତ ଲିଙ୍ଗଗତ, ଜାତିଗତ, ଜାତି, ଧର୍ମ, ଜନ୍ମ, ବର୍ଣ୍ଣ, ଭାଷା ଓ ଜାତୀୟତା, ଭିନ୍ନକ୍ଷମ, ବୟସ, ସ୍ୱାସ୍ଥ୍ୟ ଅବସ୍ଥା, ସମ୍ପତ୍ତି, ଆର୍ଥିକ ଓ ସାମାଜିକ ସ୍ଥିତି, ପରିବେଶ ପ୍ରଦୁଷଣ, ଜଳବାୟୁ ର ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତନ, ଜନସଂଖ୍ୟା ର ବୃଦ୍ଧି, ଦ୍ଵନ୍ଦ, ଜବରଦସ୍ତି ଉଚ୍ଛେଦ, ସ୍ଥାନାନ୍ତରଣ ଇତ୍ୟାଦି ଲୋକମାନଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ଜଳ ସମସ୍ୟା ସୃଷ୍ଟି କରିଥାଏ
ଜୀବନ ପାଇଁ ଜଳ ଅତ୍ୟନ୍ତ ଜରୁରୀ । ଏହାର ଉପଯୋଗ କେବଳ ଶୋଷ ମେଣ୍ଟାଇବା ବା ଶରୀର ସୁରକ୍ଷା ନୁହେଁ ଆହୁରି ଅନେକଜଳ କାମ ସୃଷ୍ଟି କରିବା, ଆର୍ଥିକ ସ୍ଥିତି କୁ ସମର୍ଥନ ଦେବା, ସାମାଜିକ ଏବଂ ମନୁଷ୍ୟ ର ଉନ୍ନତି ପାଇଁ ଅପରିହାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ବିଶ୍ଵ ଜଳ ଦିବସ କୁ ପ୍ରତିବର୍ଷ ମାର୍ଚ୍ଚ ୨୨ ତାରିଖରେ ମଧୁରଜଳ ର ମହତ୍ଵ କୁ ଦର୍ଶାଇବା ପାଇଁ ପାଳନ କରାଯାଏ । ୧୯୯୩ ମସିହାରେ ଜାତିସଂଘ ଦ୍ଵାରା ନାମିତ ପ୍ରଥମ ବିଶ୍ଵ ଜଳ ଦିବସ ପାଳନ କରଯାଇଥିଲା । ଏହି ଦିନ ମଧୁର ଜଳ ଉତ୍ସ ଗୁଡିକୁ ସରଂକ୍ଷଣ କରିବା ନିମନ୍ତେ ପ୍ରଚାର କରାଯାଏ । ବିଶ୍ଵ ଜଳ ଦିବସ ଦିନ ଶିକ୍ଷଣୀୟ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟପନ୍ଥା, ନାଟକ, ସଙ୍ଗୀତ, ପରିବେଶ ସମ୍ବଧୀୟ ପ୍ରଚାର ଆଦି ସାରା ବିଶ୍ଵରେ କରାଯାଏ। ଏ ବର୍ଷର ବିଶ୍ଵ ଜଳ ଦିବସର ବିଷୟବସ୍ତୁ ହେଉଛି “କାହାକୁ ପଛରେ ଛାଡିବାନି”ଏହି ବିଷୟ କୁ ୨୦୩୦ ନିରନ୍ତର ବିକାଶର (SDG) କାର୍ଯ୍ୟସୂଚୀ ରୁ ନିଆଯାଇଛି । କାରଣ ନିରନ୍ତର ବିକାଶ ଦ୍ଵାରା ସମସ୍ତେ ଉପକୃତ ହେବେ । ଏସଡ଼ିଜି – ୬ ର ଲକ୍ଷ୍ୟ ୨୦୩୦ ସୁଧା ନିରନ୍ତର ରକ୍ଷଣାବେକ୍ଷଣ ଦ୍ଵାରା ସମସ୍ତଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ବିଶୁଦ୍ଧ ଜଳ ସୁବିଧା । ଘରେ ଘରେ ସହଜଲଭ୍ୟ ଓ ସଂକ୍ରମିତ ନହୋଇଥିବା ଜଳକୁ ବିଶୁଦ୍ଧ ପାନୀୟଜଳ କୁହାଯାଏ । ଆମେ ଯେଉଁଠାରେ ଥାଉ ବା ଯେକେହିବି ହେଇଥାଉ ଜଳ ହେଉଛି ଆମର ମାନବିକ ଅଧିକାର । ପାନୀୟ ଜଳ ର ସହଜ ଲଭ୍ୟତା ଓ ଜନସ୍ଵାସ୍ଥ୍ୟ, ନିରନ୍ତର ବିକାଶ, ସ୍ଥିର ଓ ସମୃଦ୍ଧ ପୃଥିବୀ ପାଇଁ ଅତ୍ୟନ୍ତ ମହତ୍ଵପୂର୍ଣ ଯଦି ବହୁ ଲୋକଙ୍କ ପାଖରେ ବିଶୁଦ୍ଧ ଜଳ ର ସୁବିଧା ନଥିବ ତେବେ ବିଶ୍ଵ ଏକ ସମାଜ ରୂପେ କେବେବି ଆଗକୁ ବଢିପାରିବ ନାହିଁ । ୨୦୧୦ ରେ ଜାତିସଂଘ ସମସ୍ତଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ବିଶୁଦ୍ଧ ପାନୀୟ ଜଳ ଓ ସ୍ଵଚ୍ଛତା କୁ ମାନବ ଅଧିକାର ରୂପେ ସୀକୃତି ପ୍ରଦାନ କରିଥିଲା କାରଣ ଏହା ଜୀବନକୁ ପୂର୍ଣ ମାତ୍ରାରେ ଉପଭୋଗ କରିବା ଓ ସବୁ ମାନବ ଅଧିକାର ର ପାଳନ ପାଇଁ ଅତ୍ୟନ୍ତ ଜରୁରୀ। “କାହାକୁ ପଛରେ ଛାଡିବାନି” ର ମାନେ ଆମେ ଯେଉଁ ମାନେ ଉପେକ୍ଷିତ ସେମାନଙ୍କୁ ଜଳ ଅଧିକାର ର ଅନ୍ତର୍ଭୁକ୍ତ କରିବା। ନିୟନ୍ତ୍ରକ ଓ ଆଇନ ବ୍ୟବସ୍ଥା ସମସ୍ତଙ୍କର ଜଳ ଅଧିକାରକୁ ସୀକୃତି ଦବା ଉଚିତ୍ ତଥା ବିଭିନ୍ନ ପ୍ରକାରର ସଚେତନତା ଅଭିଯାନ କରିବା ଉଚିତ୍ ଏଥିସହିତ ପିଲାମାନେ ଓ ଯୁବକ ଗୋଷ୍ଟୀ ପରିବେଶ ର ସରଂକ୍ଷଣ ପାଇଁ କାମ କରିବା, ପାଣିର ଅପବ୍ୟବହାର କୁ ରୋକିବା, ଭୂତଳ ଜଳର ସରଂକ୍ଷଣ, ବର୍ଜ୍ୟ ଜଳକୁ ବିଭିନ୍ନ କାମରେ ଉପଯୋଗ କରିବା, ବର୍ଷା ଜଳର ସରଂକ୍ଷଣ, ମୃତ୍ତିକା ସରଂକ୍ଷଣ, ବୃକ୍ଷ ରୋପଣ, ବିଦ୍ୟାଳୟ ଓ ମହାବିଦ୍ୟାଳୟ ମାନଙ୍କରେ ନୂତନ ଉଦ୍ୟମ, ଲୋକମାନଙ୍କୁ ଜଳ ସରଂକ୍ଷଣ ର ମହତ୍ଵ ଏବଂ ଜଳ ଉତ୍ସ ଗୁଡିକର ଉପଯୁକ୍ତ ରକ୍ଷଣାବେକ୍ଷଣା ଇତ୍ୟାଦି ଆଜି ଦିନର ଆମ ସମସ୍ତଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ଆହ୍ଵାନ।          
ଜଳ ଆମ ଜୀବନ, ଜୀବନ ଜଳ । ଜଳର ଅପଚୟ ଓ ସଂକ୍ରମିତ ଜଳ ନିଶ୍ଚିନ୍ତ ଭାବରେ ଏ ପୃଥିବୀ ପାଇଁ ଏକ ବିରାଟ ସମସ୍ୟା ନେଇ ଆସିଛି ଏବେଠାରୁ ଯଦି ଆମେ ଜଳର ରକ୍ଷଣାବେକ୍ଷଣ, ସରଂକ୍ଷଣ ଓ ବିଶୁଦ୍ଧତା ପ୍ରତି ସଚେତନ ନହେବା ତେବେ ନିଶ୍ଚିନ୍ତ ଭାବରେ ଏ ପୃଥିବୀ ଧ୍ଵଂସ ମୁଖକୁ ଯିବ । ଏ ବିଷୟରେ ଯୁବଗୋଷ୍ଟୀ ତଥା ଜନସାଧାରଣ ସମସ୍ତଙ୍କର ଭୂମିକା ଅତ୍ୟନ୍ତ ଗୁରୁତ୍ବପୂର୍ଣ ।       


ଅନୁରାଧା ମହାନ୍ତି,
କାର୍ଯ୍ୟନିର୍ବାହୀ ନିର୍ଦ୍ଦେଶିକା, ପିକକ୍  
anuradhabbsr2015@gmailcom     


Thursday, 14 March 2019

Water is Life ……save water save life …..‘Leaving no one behind’


2.1 billion people live without safe water at home, One in four primary schools have no drinking water service, with pupils using unprotected sources or going thirsty. More than 700 children under five years of age die every day from diarrhea linked to unsafe water and poor sanitation. Globally, 80% of the people who have to use unsafe and unprotected water sources live in rural areas. Women and girls are responsible for water collection in eight out of ten households with water off-premises. For the 68.5 million people who have been forced to flee their homes, accessing safe water services is highly problematic. Around 159 million people collect their drinking water from surface water, such as ponds and streams. Around 4 billion people – nearly two-thirds of the world’s population – experience severe water scarcity during at least one month of the year. Over 800 women die every day from complications in pregnancy and childbirth.700 million people worldwide could be displaced by intense water scarcity by 2030.
 People are left behind without safe water for many different reasons. The following are some of the ‘grounds for discrimination’ that cause certain people to be particularly disadvantaged when it comes to accessing water: Sex and gender ,Race, ethnicity, religion, birth, caste, language, and nationality, Disability, age and health status, Property, tenure, residence, economic and social status, Other factors, such as environmental degradation, climate change, population growth, conflict, forced displacement and migration flows can also disproportionately affect marginalized groups through impacts on water.
Today, billions of people are still living without safe water – their households, schools, workplaces, farms and factories struggling to survive and thrive. 
Marginalized groups – women, children, refugees, indigenous peoples, disabled people and many others – are often overlooked, and sometimes face discrimination, as they try to access and manage the safe water they need.
Water is an essential building block of life. It is more than just essential to quench thirst or protect health; water is vital for creating jobs and supporting economic, social, and human development.  World Water Day is an annual UN observance day (always on 22 March) that highlights the importance of freshwater. The first World Water Day, designated by the United Nations, was commemorated in 1993. The day is used to advocate for the sustainable management of freshwater resources. World Water Day is celebrated around the world with a variety of events. These can be educational, theatrical, musical or lobbying in nature.
The theme for World Water Day 2019 is ‘Leaving no one behind’. This is an adaptation of the central promise of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: as sustainable development progresses, everyone must benefit.  It relates to water as Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG 6) aims to ensure availability and sustainable management of water for all by 2030. By definition, this means leaving no one behind.
Safe water’ mean  is shorthand for a ‘safely managed drinking water service’: water that is accessible on the premises, available when needed, and free from contamination. Whoever you are, wherever you are, water is our human right. Access to water underpins public health and is therefore critical to sustainable development and a stable and prosperous world. We cannot move forward as a global society while so many people are living without safe water. In 2010, the UN recognized “the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right that is essential for the full enjoyment of life and all human rights.”The human right to water entitles everyone, without discrimination, to sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible and affordable water for personal and domestic use; which includes water for drinking, personal sanitation, washing of clothes, food preparation, and personal and household hygiene.
To ‘leave no one behind’, we must focus our efforts towards including people who have been marginalized or ignored.
 World water day is to increase the awareness of people towards the importance of water in various field of life including the environment, health, agriculture and trade. By organizing variety of events and activities such as visual art, theatrical and musical celebrations of water, excursions to the local ponds, lakes, rivers and reservoirs, symposium at local, national and international level over water management and safety, educational events based on the importance of clean water and conservative measures, competitions and. The main symbol of the World Water Day celebration is the shape of water drop of blue color. Water services must meet the needs of marginalized groups .Regulatory and legal frameworks must recognize the right to water for all people, need to organize various awareness campaigns within community & children &  youths to work with nature , minimizing use of water, ground water recharge ,using waste water various purposes .rain water harvesting ,soil conservation ,plantation , More and more initiatives in schools and universities , educating people about the importance of conserving and managing water resources etc.
Anuradha Mohanty
Executive Director, PECUC

Friday, 28 September 2018

Women


Improving the lives of women in ways that are meaningful to them.
"Transforming lives… Creating smiles!"
When a girl or a woman is empowered, she becomes a catalyst for positive change whose success benefits everyone around her. Social, political and economical empowerment of women is one of the core activities of PECUC. In the beginning, around 1991-92, PECUC started forming women groups in Balianta block of Khordha district. It took around two and half years to form the groups & open bank accounts of 13 women self help groups. These groups impacted the formation of more than hundred groups in few years in this area. There were a lot of issues for women like coming out of house, which was again a huge struggle for them to meet their groups, to talk to them freely and to seat in a place outside their home. We had to first interact with the male members of the family to talk to the women group members. While opening the bank account even the women group members faced many constraints. Through intervention of NABARD we were able to convince the bankers and finally opened their bank accounts. It was also difficult for women to save Rs. 5 per month. Then they started keeping handful of rice & at the end of the month they sold it that gave them a calculated savings of Rs 20-25 per head. Slowly, the movement took up. After intensive training and continuous interaction, the women came out and started forming groups & by 2001 we were able to form 118 women self help groups in Balianta block, and by the end of 2014, PECUC was successful in promotion of 348 women self-help groups in its operational areas of Khordha, Keonjhar and Balasore districts, having 4191 women members with Rs. 1,36,01,881 savings in different banks.
In the year 1991-92, when PECUC started facilitating the formation of women SHGs in Balianta block of Khordha district, it took 2 years to promote 15 groups in 13 villages. These women self help groups are not only involved in thrift and credit management but also actively engaged in supplementing the family against violence on women. Remarkable changes have been observed since then. Women have come forward to solve the problems of their families and neighbours on their own. They have been pioneer in activities like anti liquor movement, education for girls and increasing access of poor people to various poverty alleviation programmes of the Govt, stopping child marriage, stopping child labour, reproductive child health, nutrition, organic farming, etc.
Laxmipriya Sahoo, Ward Member, of Bainchua Panchayat, Balianta block, Khordha, aged around 40 years, belongs to  OBC group. She intervened into a marriage and stopped it as the bride and groom were minors. Anima (Fake Name), a 17 years old girl of Balianta block, Khordha district was studying +2 in Balakati College. A fellow student from Pipili fell in love with her. He then started bothering her in college and on social media. Frightened of this, Anima informed her parents about it. Her parents went to the boy’s house to talk to his parents regarding this. But things went ugly and they had exchange of words and threatened them. The incident shook the girl and her family. She got scared to go out. Seeing this, her parents decided to get her married to the son of one of their distant relatives from Balakati. They got engaged and the boy who used to bother her got the news of this. The boy then informed about this to the DSWO as the girl was underage. The marriage was to happen on 19th April 2018. PECUC’s team got information about this & informed CDPO of Balianta Block. Then PECUC team along with CDPO talked with  the Sarpanch and Ward members of the girl’s village to be present in the fact finding team. But Sarpanch hesitated and requested to stay away from it. The Sarpanch was scared that if this incident was disclosed to public it will bring shame to their village so he assured that he will handle it in his own way. But Laxmipriya and the Ward Members joined the team. They sat down with both the families and informed them about the laws related to child marriage. The girl’s parents informed that the girl is already traumatized because of the previous incident and has become depressed and making suicidal attempt. If the marriage breaks then she might do any harm to her own life. The team and others got shocked hearing this. So they decided to counsel the girl. They assured her that the boy will no longer bother her and also the marriage will definitely happen once she turns 18. This brought a change in her mind and she promised that she will wait to marry until she turns 18. Then the parents were made to sign a declaration that said although the families can have a usual relationship but the parents will not try or force the girl to get married before she turns 18. And she can marry the guy she got engaged with if she wants.

Sabita Bhoi, Ward member of village Saleswar, Balianta Gram Panchayat of Balianta Block, Khordha Districts of Odisha is also a member of Alibha Federation. Earlier she didn’t know anything about Gram Panchayat. In 2017 Panchayat election villagers asked her to stand in the Election. She is a poor lady and only daughter of her parents. Her father passed away when she was a child. She and her mother were living in a difficult situation. Her mother arranged a marriage for her at Berhampur. After 2 years of the marriage she had a daughter. They named her Rashmi because she thought that her daughter would bring light in her life. After the birth of her daughter, her husband left her. Until now she has not received any information about him. Her mother and she worked as daily wage workers in different household and gave her daughter a formal education. Today she is doing +3 arts. She then diverted her attention towards the responsibility of Panchayat. In her village a 16 years old girl named Anu Das (Fake Name)  fled away with a ST boy of snake charmer community (Kela). Sabita along with the villagers searched for her, failing which they lodged a FIR in the Police Station. Police searched for them and found them in an objectionable position. They were brought to Balianta PS. There was a compromise. In front of the authority an undertaking was signed by both the parents of the boy and girl. It was decided that the girl will remain with her parents house till she attains the age of 18. And will marry the boy after she attains the age of maturity. She will not be subjected to any kind of mental torture from both sides during the intervening period. The marriage of the girl with boy was postponed for appropriate time. She got full-fledged help and cooperation from PECUC and the ward member  in this endeavour of her.  
Jhuna Mallick, belonging to SC community, is working as the Ward Member at Kothapatana, Balianta block, Khordha. She has studied upto 5th class. Her father died when she was a child. Jhuna’s mother got her married early at the age of 15 and was a housewife for 13 years. Her husband is a daily wager; some days he gets work and some days he doesn’t. Thus, it gets difficult to manage the livelihood of their family. So, she became a member of SHG and took a loan to open a grocery store in front of her house. The money that comes from the store is spent on her kids’ education. When her husband has no work, he helps her with the store and household chores. Even though Jhuna is not very educated, she manages everything. She loves helping her community for which the community loves her a lot. Jhuna has been involved with PECUC’s activities since 2015. In 2017, Panchayat Election, the ward no. 16 had a woman reserved seat, so the Women Rights Committee decided to enrol Jhuna Mallick to stand in the election from that ward. Although her family was a bit sceptical about the decision, she agreed to contest the election. Two other women were also contesting against her. On moral grounds, she didn’t want to go against the women of her community, she decided to withdraw from the election. However, the people persuaded her not to withdraw her candidacy. Many rumours were spread about her but she kept calm and won the election by 130 votes. On March 10th, 2017, she took her oath to see her village as her family and promised development, but she didn’t know how and where to start from. PECUC lend out a helping hand. She took part in the 3-day leadership development training. She would attend all the panchayat meetings but she hesitated to voice her thoughts. She would come to PECUC’s coordinator and discuss her problems. Now, she speaks her mind in meeting confidently. She conducted Palli Sabha Meeting and assessed all the issues and presented them in the Gram Sabha Meeting. PECUC, then gave training on finance management, which she attended. With time, her enthusiasm to work for the community increased. She walks 5 km from her home to the panchayat office every day. She took up a lot of work in 2017-18. The school had in their village had only one tube-well and it wasn’t working properly. She provided water supply to the school. She also helped Manju Das get the widow pension scheme and also helped Subhalaxmi Mallick to get the PMAY house. She also provided toilets to 2 families and enrolled 4 families under the BPL scheme. She helped 4 families of the deceased get Rs. 2000 each under the Harishchandra Yojana. She did all this with the help of the Panchayat Fund. Apart from this, she’s also a member of GKS and holds meeting every month. She also used the Panchayat Fund to construct a dustbin. She’s also a member in Kanchilo School SMC. She visits the school and AWC twice or thrice every week. She monitors the education and the MDM food provided in the school. We are proud of her and the accomplishments that she has achieved in this short term.
Apart from social issues, many income generation activities has also been carried out by the women group members that includes turmeric processing, petty shops, goatery, fishery, pisciculture, vegetable cultivation, pig rearing, poultry, badi and papad making, tailoring, essence stick, leaf plate making, rice processing, band party, floriculture, cane work, diary farming, minor forest product collection, dry fish, sheep rearing, bamboo work, pickle, ginger cultivation, duck rearing, popped rice, etc. PECUC’s effort to build the capacity of women on different areas has resulted in building their self confidence, increasing their participation in decision making process in family and community, pallisava & gram sava, as well as Panchayati Raj Institutions. PECUC is working with women panchayat functionaries of Balianta, Bolgarh block of Khordha district with The Hunger Project to enhance their capacity, continuous training, federation building of women PRIs at cluster level & Block Level, Need based training on various issues, Gramsava & pallisava mobilization, monitoring scheme programmes /ICDS /MDM/School programme/Sanitation, etc, environment protection activities like planting trees, campaign on end violence against women, public hearing on DV cases with women commission, interface with Govt officials, changing seating arrangement at panchayat level, etc. PECUC has opened Gender panchayat resource centre at all panchayats of Balianta block & also at Bolgarh. This centre is managed by women PRIs of that area.
Gender Equality will only be reached if we are able to empower women”

Anuradha  Mohanty
Executive Director ,PECUC
pecuc@hotmail.com , www.pecuc.org

Thursday, 6 September 2018

Ending Child Marriage in India: Moving from Law to Justice


The expression-child marriage is a compendious one. For some it is fun and excitement and for some it is end of parental liability. Again, some relate Child Marriage either with culture  or religion. But, it seems nobody understand the plight of the children who live under the bondage of forced or obtuse matrimony. Since 1929 both the British and the Government of India have been trying to eradicate Child marriage in India but the fact and figures present disappointing picture. As per the 205th Report of the Law Commission of India, February 2008, child marriages continue to be a fairly widespread social evil in India and in a study carried out between the years 1998 to 1999 on women aged 15-19 it was found that 33.8% were currently married or in a union. In 2000 the UN Population Division recorded that 9.5% of boys and 35.7 % of girls aged between 15-19 were married. However, while regional disparities exist, child marriage has significantly decreased from 47 per cent (2006) to 27 per cent (2016). Despite this drop, nearly 1.5 million girls under 18 year of age enter into premature matrimony. Therefore, the salient issue is how to minimized the frequency of Child Marriage in India. Sociologists argue that for variety of reasons, child marriages are prevalent in many parts of our country but the reality is more complex than what it seems to be.        Can alone law do it? I know many are skeptic about this but if we look at the provisions of Section 16 of the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 it provides the statutory duties of Child Marriage Prohibition Officers. As I understand these duties are not explanatory and need to be crafted properly. Many might have observed two forms of Child marriage ie, Minor’s Marriage with the consent of the parents and guardians and Minor’s Marriage without the consent of their parents and guardians. In both the cases the legitimacy of marriage often presented before the honourable court.
The legal principle that a marriage in contravention of clause (iii) of section 5 of the HMA was-neither void nor voidable, was established prior to the enactment and enforcement of the Prohibition of Child marriage Act, 2006. The principle which is now applicable is that a marriage in contravention of clause (iii) of section 5 of the HMA is not ipso facto void but could be void if any of the circumstances enumerated in section 12 of the Prohibition of Child marriage Act, 2006 is triggered and that, in any event, all such marriages would be voidable at the option of the ‘child' spouse in terms of section 3 of the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006.
The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006. extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir; and it applies also to all citizens of India without and beyond India: Provided that nothing contained in this Act shall apply to the Re-noncants of the Union territory of Pondicherry. The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint; and different dates may be appointed for different States and any reference in any provision to the commencement of this Act shall be construed in relation to any State as a reference to the coming into force of that provision in that State.
Sometimes parents refuse undertake the responsibility of minor bride and bride groom.(especially after kidnapping and rape) Section 5 of the enactment provides Custody and maintenance of children of child marriages and Section 6. of the Act provides Legitimacy of children born of child marriages and it has been done in the best interest of the Child. The District enjoys the power to pass appropriate order for the custody of the Children (Section 7). Therefore, should JJ Act 2015, Domestic Violence Act, Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012 and the Mental Healthcare Act, 2017 be engaged to tackle the situation? Or the Parent legislation should specifically make provisions to that effect?
Section 9. Punishment for male adult marrying a child.(2 Yrs and fine up to 2lakh or both)  Section10. Punishment for solemnising a child marriage and Section 11. Punishment for promoting or permitting solemnisation of child marriages. Sometimes social activist and hardliner argue for stringent punishment to minimize offences. The quantum of sentence has been a contesting subject and the learned house should debate. In Shankar Kisanrao Khade vs. State of Maharashtra[(2013) 5 SCC 546], referring to the recent decisions (of about fifteen years), the Supreme Court has summarized the mitigating factors and aggravating factors. In State of Rajasthan v. Jamil Khan, (2013) 10 SCC 721 the apex court observed that “A balance-sheet of aggravating and mitigating circumstances has to be drawn up and in doing so the mitigating circumstances have to be accorded full weightage and a just balance has to be struck between the aggravating and the mitigating circumstances before the option of sentence is exercised”.
Last but not the least, Section 13 provides Power of court to issue injunction prohibiting child marriages and under the provision the District Magistrate who is deemed to be the Child Marriage Prohibition Officer  enjoys wide power to prohibit child marriage under his jurisdiction. As I have seen District Magistrates are overburdened with their normal administrative work. Should State Government appoint specifically appoint Child Marriage Prohibition Officers vested with Magisterial powers other than District Magistrates?
Child marriage is a social evil which has the potentialities of dangers to the life and health of a female child and can play multi-dimensional havoc in their lives, who cannot withstand the stress and strains of married life and it leads to early deaths of such minor mothers. It also reflects the chauvinistic attribute of the Indian society. Time has come stop child marriage  for good as it violates the Rights of Child and the basic tenets  of Human Rights.




Prof (Dr.) P.K.Pattnaik
Dean, SOA National Institute of Law

Wednesday, 26 April 2017

Current Environmental Scenario of the World

The world environment has been facing the worst phase of climatic turmoil since its evolution. It is deteriorating day by day and is also affecting the million flora and fauna’s lives, including the humans. Yet we have no concerns for saving our planet.

A recent report developed by a group of researchers showed that the glacier that used to be huge as mountains are now shrinking faster at an alarming rate. And by few years ahead, they believe that the human race will be able to see land in the extreme northern continent. This is going to create havoc by raising the ocean level and flooding many megacities, as most of them are located near the coast. 

Since few years, the phenomenon of global warming has slowed down, which has led to mend in the mind of many layman that we are no more polluting the environment to that extent as we did before. But alas! Here’s an eye-opener for them. The earth’s surface is mostly covered with water. The ocean acts as an excellent carbon sink as carbon dioxide has higher affinity towards water molecules, hence gets trapped by the water and gets converted to carbonic acid. May be due to this reason, the global warming effect is less observed, but nowhere we have reduced the intensity of the pollution. Due to higher concentration of CO2 in water, this has resulted in low oxygen availability in ocean water causing death of aquatic animals as well as plants. This will not only affect these living organisms, but also the livelihood of those individuals who depend on fishing. This has also resulted in increased algal bloom in many reasons of the world. Recently, this problem has become prominent in the Mediterranean ocean, where the algal bloom can also be seen from the satellite images and is rapidly spreading towards Indian Ocean.

Every individual has a role to play in saving his/her planet. No govt. or organization can do this on their own. Environmental protection needs to be a collaborative effort.

Friday, 1 April 2016

Environment


Effect of climate change.

Sushree Shailani Suman


 1- Perishing green plants: Is global warming the cause?
Global warming is a growing concern worldwide with climate change being the most talked subject. Its effects are well known on plants and the photosynthetic process. The increased concentration of heat-trapping greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) has accelerated global warming in manifold and led to extreme events such as cyclonic storms, typhoons, drought, unseasonal rainfall, and heat waves.
2- How do plants deal with global warming?
The most surprising fact about CO2 is its ability to increase the rate of photosynthesis in green plants, particularly the C3 plants. Through photosynthesis, green plants absorb CO2 from the atmosphere and subsequently convert it into organic products (like carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, etc.) and byproducts (like oxygen). This process has been considered as a source of carbon dioxide sequestration. 
Elevated atmospheric CO2 levels lead to temperature rise with a concomitant increase in the rate of transpiration by the green plants. However, if the plant responds by stomatal closure, the rate of transpiration may decrease. This does not allow excess CO2 to enter the plant and results in an increased survival rate during water scarcity. The advantages are time bound. This also has several adverse effects on the photosynthetic process as absorption of less CO2 means stunted growth. Closed stomata for a longer duration may lead to starvation in plants. Due to less partial pressure of CO2, the stomata will be left open, resulting in rapid water loss along with CO2 intake. Subsequently, the plants wither, wilt and die, which may have huge social implications.
The decomposition of organic matter in the soil is also stimulated by the increased CO2 levels to be easily made available for the plants’ absorption, which in turn increases the rate of photosynthesis and carbon fixation.
Apart from the above-mentioned facts, the enhanced level of CO2 is also marked by increased plant growth that might sound good to the farmers. Conversely, the weeds surrounding the vegetation tend to grow at a faster rate in such environmental conditions.
But such responses by the photosynthetic plants are dependent on diverse environmental factors such as availability of water, moisture content of the soil, nutrient content, atmospheric temperature, and variable CO2 concentration, etc. Responses may be negative or positive depending on the exact nature of changes and the factors that initially limited the growth and rate of photosynthesis.

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Green revolution and its loopholes


Sushree Shailani Suman



1- Green Revolution for Mass: The advanced Mexican agricultural technology introduced by Norman Borlaug made a way out for the evolutionary technology in India, which was initiated as a trial project by Dr. M.S. Swaminathan in the northern states of India, especially Punjab and Haryana. The technology received various approbations from the scientific circles: “Green revolution describes the spectacular increase that took place during 1967–1978, and is continuing in the production of food grains in India”- was cited by J.G. Harrar.




2- Advancements: Green revolution proved to be a track changer in the traditional farming techniques (introduction of tractors, thrashers, harvesters; use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, for instant increase in the yield, etc.) as well as replacing the traditional seeds with high yielding varieties or seeds with genetic superiority.




3- Prolonged Loopholes: Apart from the advantages, green revolution proved to be a bane in disguise for the farmers. It has over burdened them with the increasing costs of chemical fertilizers, pesticides as well as other chemicals. The technology aimed at increasing the production of only the staple cereal crops, like rice and wheat, that too only in the north Indian states. The technology was not well implemented or did not give a proceeding result in many parts of the country.




The genetically superior seeds demanded more water, fertilizers and other accessory chemicals, for their growth and development. The overuse of these chemical ingredients has led to the detoriation and deformation in the chemistry and structure of the soil. The natural soil microbiotas are kept aloof of the soil organic carbon content, which is their nutrition source. The unavailability of the soil carbon leads to a decrease in the concentration of the beneficial soil microbiota that plays an important role in maintaining the structure of the soil. Due to this, the soil particles are left apart and they become compact and lose the water holding capacity.




The depletion in the soil organic carbon leads to the decrease in the soil’s buffering capacity that in turn affects the pH level of the soil. Lowering in the pH level affects various parameters like the unavailability of phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, which in turn affects the physiology of the plants; stunted growth of the plants, decreased root biomass and length, etc. whereas high pH level leads to a decrease in the availability of micronutrients like copper, zinc, boron, etc., which also affects the overall growth and developmental process of the plant. Decrease in the buffering capacity also leads to an increase in the thatch layer, which in turn aggravates the pathogenic population in the soil. In order to kill these pathogens, it is needed to use chemicals that, on the contrary, kill the beneficial organisms in the soil too.




Apart from these drawbacks, the technology of green revolution has neither proved to be a long-term solution, nor has it ensured food security for the rising population of our country.


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